- Restructuring and other charges are (i) costs associated with a formal restructuring plan and are primarily related to employee termination costs and benefits, costs of real estate consolidation and other non-labor charges; and (ii) other charges, which include non-recurring costs that are distinct from ongoing operational costs. HP excludes these restructuring and other charges (and any reversals of charges recorded in prior periods) for purposes of calculating these non-GAAP measures because HP believes that these historical costs do not reflect expected future operating expenses and do not contribute to a meaningful evaluation of HP's current operating performance or comparisons to HP's operating performance in other periods.
- HP incurs cost related to its acquisitions, which it would not have otherwise incurred as part of its operations. The charges are direct expenses such as third-party professional and legal fees, and integration-related costs, as well as non-cash adjustments to the fair value of certain acquired assets such as inventory. These charges related to acquisitions are inconsistent in amount and frequency and are significantly impacted by the timing and nature of HP's acquisitions. HP believes that eliminating such expenses for purposes of calculating these non-GAAP measures facilitates a more meaningful evaluation of HP's current operating performance and comparisons to HP's past operating performance.
- HP incurs charges relating to the amortization of intangible assets. Those charges are included in HP’s GAAP earnings, operating margin, net earnings and diluted net EPS. Such charges are significantly impacted by the timing and magnitude of HP’s acquisitions and any related impairment charges. Consequently, HP excludes these charges for purposes of calculating these non-GAAP measures to facilitate a more meaningful evaluation of HP’s current operating performance and comparisons to HP’s operating performance in other periods.
- Non-operating retirement-related credits/(charges) includes certain market-related factors such as interest cost, expected return on plan assets, amortized actuarial gains or losses, and impacts from other market-related factors associated with HP’s defined benefit pension and post-retirement benefit plans. The market-driven retirement-related adjustments are primarily due to the changes in pension plan assets and liabilities which are tied to financial market performance and HP considers these adjustments to be outside the operational performance of the business. Non-operating retirement-related credits/(charges) also include certain plan curtailments, settlements and special termination benefits related to HP’s defined benefit pension and post-retirement benefit plans. HP believes that eliminating such adjustments for purposes of calculating non-GAAP measures facilitates a more meaningful evaluation of HP's current operating performance and provides better transparency into the segment operating results.
- HP incurred defined benefit plan settlement charges relating to the U.S. HP pension plan. The charges are associated with the net settlement and remeasurement resulting from voluntary lump sum payments offered to certain terminated vested participants. HP excludes these charges for the purposes of calculating these non-GAAP measures to facilitate a more meaningful evaluation of HP’s current operating performance and comparisons to HP’s operating performance in other periods.
- HP incurred debt extinguishment costs related to the March 2018 repurchase of certain of its outstanding U.S. dollar global notes. These costs primarily included bond repurchase premiums and losses from fair value hedges. HP excludes these costs for the purposes of calculating these non-GAAP measures to facilitate a more meaningful evaluation of HP's current operating performance and comparisons to HP's operating performance in other periods.
- Tax adjustments include U.S. tax reform adjustment and net tax indemnification amounts.
• HP recorded U.S. tax reform adjustment as one-time charges relating to the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. These charges encompass several elements, including the reversal of previously accrued taxes on unrepatriated overseas profits, a one-time transition tax on accumulated overseas profits and the revaluation of deferred tax assets and liabilities to the new U.S. tax rate. These charges are provisional based on reasonable estimates. Changes to these estimates, new guidance issued by regulators and new positions taken or elections made by HP may materially impact provision for income taxes and effective tax rate in the period in which the adjustments are made. HP expects the accounting for the tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act will be completed during the one year measurement period.
• As a part of the separation of Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company from HP Inc. (the “Separation”), HP evaluates all tax uncertain positions to determine the indemnification amounts under the Tax Matters Agreement with Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company and records the adjustments as net tax indemnifications amounts for the quarter.
• HP also recorded other tax adjustments including tax benefits primarily related to the realizability of certain deferred tax assets.
HP excludes these adjustments for the purposes of calculating these non-GAAP measures to facilitate a more meaningful evaluation of HP’s current operating performance and comparisons to HP’s operating performance in other periods.
Free cash flow is a non-GAAP measure that is defined as cash flow from operations less the net of investments in and proceeds from sales of property, plant, and equipment. Gross cash is a non-GAAP measure that is defined as cash and cash equivalents plus short-term investments and certain long-term investments that may be liquidated within 90 days pursuant to the terms of existing put options or similar rights. HP’s management uses free cash flow and gross cash for the purpose of determining the amount of cash available for investment in HP’s businesses, repurchasing stock and other purposes. HP’s management also uses free cash flow and gross cash to evaluate HP’s historical and prospective liquidity. Because gross cash includes liquid assets that are not included in cash and cash equivalents, HP believes that gross cash provides a helpful assessment of HP’s liquidity. Because free cash flow includes the effect of investment in property, plant and equipment and proceeds from the sale of property, plant and equipment that are not reflected in net cash provided by operating activities, HP believes that free cash flow provides a more accurate and complete assessment of HP’s liquidity and capital resources. Net cash (debt) is defined as gross cash less gross debt after adjusting the effect of unamortized premium/discount on debt issuance, debt issuance costs and unrealized gains/losses on fair value hedges and interest rate swaps.
Material limitations associated with use of non-GAAP financial measures
These non-GAAP financial measures may have limitations as analytical tools, and these measures should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of HP’s results as reported under GAAP. Some of the limitations in relying on these non-GAAP financial measures are:
- Items such as amortization of intangible assets, though not directly affecting HP’s cash position, represent the loss in value of intangible assets over time. The expense associated with this change in value is not included in non-GAAP operating margin, non-GAAP net earnings and non-GAAP diluted net EPS, and therefore does not reflect the full economic effect of the change in value of those intangible assets.
- Items such as restructuring and other charges, acquisition-related charges, non-operating retirement-related credits/(charges), defined benefit plan settlement charges, debt extinguishment costs and tax adjustments that are excluded from non-GAAP operating margin, non-GAAP net earnings and non-GAAP diluted net EPS can have a material impact on the equivalent GAAP earnings measure and cash flows.
- HP may not be able to immediately liquidate the short-term and long-term investments included in gross cash, which may limit the usefulness of gross cash as a liquidity measure.
- Other companies may calculate the non-GAAP financial measures differently than HP, limiting the usefulness of those measures for comparative purposes.
Compensation for limitations associated with use of non-GAAP financial measures
HP compensates for the limitations on its use of non-GAAP financial measures by relying primarily on its GAAP results and using non-GAAP financial measures only supplementally. HP also provides robust and detailed reconciliations of each non-GAAP financial measure to its most directly comparable GAAP measure within this news release and in other written materials that include these non-GAAP financial measures, and HP encourages investors to review those reconciliations carefully.
Usefulness of non-GAAP financial measures to investors
HP believes that providing net revenue on a constant currency basis, non-GAAP total operating expense, non-GAAP operating margin, non-GAAP tax rate, non-GAAP net earnings, non-GAAP diluted net EPS, free cash flow, gross cash and net cash (debt) to investors in addition to the related GAAP financial measures provides investors with greater transparency to the information used by HP’s management in its financial and operational decision making and allows investors to see HP’s results “through the eyes” of management. HP further believes that providing this information better enables HP’s investors to understand HP’s operating performance and financial condition and to evaluate the efficacy of the methodology and information used by HP’s management to evaluate and measure such performance and financial condition. Disclosure of these non-GAAP financial measures also facilitates comparisons of HP’s operating performance with the performance of other companies in HP’s industry that supplement their GAAP results with non-GAAP financial measures that may be calculated in a similar manner.